Welcome to Arise Infectious Disease Project

By: Angel Tlachi



Here are the following terms that will help you understand how you contract a virus and how it grows. Fungi, bacteria, virus, protozoans, and prions are pathogens because these are microorganisms that causes diseases. Susceptible host is an organism capable of contracting a specific disease.

There are differences between bacteria and viruses. Bacteria are killed by antibiotics; they live in variety of environments; they are single-celled organism; and only 1% cause disease. However viruses can not be cured by antibiotics; they can only produce only by invading a host cell; they are the smallest pathogen; and they cause diseases such as, chicken pox, influenza (flu), small pox, HIV, etc.

There are four types of infections Endogenous, Exogenous, Nosocomial, and Opportunistic. Endogenous is an infection or disease that originates within the body. Exogenous is an infection or disease that originated outside the body. Nosocomial is an infection acquired by an individual in a health care facility. Finally, opportunistic is an infection that occur when the body's defenses are weak.

There are six main infections that exist for a disease to spread and occur. Those chain of infections are causative agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and finally susceptible host. The causative agent are caused by viruses and bacteria, in order to prevented you should get diagnosed and treated. To prevent touching dirty surfaces and equipment you should clean disinfected areas. In order for you to prevent people from getting sick, is you should wear mask. You can get sick from direct contact, so to prevent this you can wash your hands. Bacteria and viruses can get into your body, in order to break the chain you should check your personal and hand hygiene. If you get contacted with a disease you should get treated by a healthcare professional


WebMD. "Slideshow: Guide to Your Immune System." WebMD. n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2018. <https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/ss/slideshow-immune-system>




Shillelagh known as influenza is a virus that can be transmitted easily and can cause death. Travelers in the Northern and Southern can be exposed to influenza during fall season. Influenza can be transmitted through handshakes, hugs, contaminated surfaces (doorknobs), sharing straws, and kissing. Influenza primarily attacks the respiratory tract. Influenza is a circular shaped virus that can be deadly and affects kids under the age of five, adults older the age of 65, people with weak immune system, and people who have  asthma, heart disease, kidney and liver disease.

Once you are contacted, symptoms that show are fever over 100.4 F, aching muscles, nasal congestion, chills and sweats, and sore throat. Influenza can take into affect till 1-4 days (average is two days). Influenza causes the flu and mainly attacks the respiratory tract. Influenza can be healed 3-7 days, however feeling tired and weak is up to 2 weeks.


N.a. "Flu (Influenza) | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health | CDC." Wwwnc.cdc.gov. n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2018. <https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/influenza-seasonal-zoonotic-and-pandemic>


Immune Response

The purpose of the immune system is to kick out infectious pathogens out of the body and destroy them. Throughout life humans are exposed to pathogens, and the immune system produces a library of antibodies to different ones. White blood cells are cells in the immune system which help to protect the body from infectious diseases. When white blood cells find infectious pathogens they multiply and send out signals to other cells to do the same.

It is interesting how our immune system works. There are other ways our immune systems fight back. For example Fevers raise the body temperature to fight influenza because viruses can't survive above body temperature (98.6°F), so the fever help destroy the virus. The mucous membrane lines all the body channels that communicate with the air,  such as the mouth, the respiratory tract, the digestive system , and the urogenital tract.  The body coughs out mucous and sneezes in order to push out the pathogen. As much as human heal through this process we can still take precaution to prevent the spread of the pathogen by practice good hygiene 


Defenses Available 

There are different strains of influenza. Influenza A, influenza  B, and influenza  C are the only ones that affect influenza. Influenza can be deadly, especially for people with weakened immune systems. Fortunately, there was a vaccine found in 1942. While the vaccine, isn't 100% effective, it is still the best defense against the flu.

Vaccines help the immune system when viruses and bacteria enter the body. Immune cells called lymphocytes produce antibodies two weeks after vaccination that help fight pathogens.  The "Trivalent Vaccines" are made to protect against the three flu viruses influenza A (H1N1) virus,  influenza A (H3N2) virus, and influenza B virus. It is recommended by the CDC that you should get vaccinated by the end of October every year. The is especially true for children and elderly adults.


The Franklin Institute. "White Blood Cells." The Franklin Institute. 2 Jun. 2015. Web. 17 Dec. 2018. <https://www.fi.edu/heart/white-blood-cells>


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